Clarence Stein and Henry Wright's Garden Cities
During the first half of the 20th century, architects Clarence Stein and Henry Wright founded the Garden city movement in the United States. They and their talented collaborators provided the leadership in designing a new type of community that continues to have an international influence on community planning, landscape architecture and architecture.
In the mid-20th century, Stein wrote Toward New Towns in America, which described the major garden cities that he and his colleagues designed and built.
Below is a list of these communities which have achieved historic distinction, along with links to their National Historic Landmark nominations.
National Historic Landmarks
Greenbelt, Maryland (1996)
Baldwin Hills Village (2001)
---Los Angeles, California
---Fair Lawn, New Jersey
Chatham Village (2005)|
National Register and New York City Landmark
Sunnyside Gardens and Phipps Garden Apartments
---New York City, New York
The Sunnyside Gardens Historic District has been declared a New York City Landmark on October 2007 after a four year process. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.
Note: The Baldwin Hills Village nomination contributed to Radburn and Chatham Village's National Landmark nominations.
Candidate for Historic Certification
Hillside Homes Apartments
---New York City, New York
No historic nomination has been prepared for this site. Cornell University's Emily Goldman has received a Stein fellowship (2010 to 2012) to advance this project.
Historic Online Resources
Clarence Stein Archives at Cornell University
Henry Wright Archives at Cornell University
Clarence Stein on Wikipedia
Works on Clarence Stein by Kermit Carlyle Parsons
Description of Parson's book on Stein and a bibliography compiled by Parsons of his important articles before his death in 1999.
Works on Urban Planning and Clarence Stein
by Kristin E. Larsen
A continuation of Kermit Carlyle Parsons' work. Publications and on going research of Kristin E. Larsen at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
"The Pragmatist--the Impact of Stein and Wright's Works on the Federal Housing Administration"
Published research and other related projects by Dr. Lauren Weiss Bricker of the California State Polytechnical Institute, Pomona, California
Clarence S. Stein Institute of Urban and Landscape Studies
at Cornell University
Fellowships offered annually to scholars and members of the Stein Garden cities. Past recepients of community fellowships include:
Baldwin Hills Village:"Preservation Framework for the Garden Cities" (2008 to 2010), "Disaster Planning for the Garden Cities" (2010 to 2012);
Sunnyside Gardens:"Book of History and Photographs of Sunnyside" (2010 to 2012), "Oral History at Sunnyside" (2011 to 2013); "Oral History at Sunnyside" (2013 to 2015).
Chatham Village:"Archival Organization of Photographs and Stein/Wright's Correspondence" (2010 to 2012).
Annual Stein Conferences:
April 2007 at Hillside Homes Apartments in New York City. Meeting held to help with this site's historic certification. Present were representatives from Hillside Homes Apartments, Sunnyside Gardens, Radburn, Baldwin Hills Village, and also Colonial Terraces (a community designed by Henry Wright during World War I).
May 2009 at New York City 's Pratt Institute. This two-day seminar was organized by Michael Tomlan, Director of the Stein Institute at Cornell University.Stein scholars spoke on these topics: Stein's biography, California Garden Cities, and the New York City Preservation Commission. Representatives from the Stein communities told about their communities through slide presentations: Hillside Homes, Sunnyside Gardens, Chatham Village, and Radburn. Representative from Baldwin Hills Village spoke on the National Landmark program and the Stein communities. Stein Institute's community fellowships were announced.
May 2010 at New York City's Cooper-Hewitt. Michael Tomlan from Cornell University organized this two-day seminar.The first day was a bus tour of Radburn, Hillside Homes, Sunnyside Gardens, and Phipps Garden Apartments.
The second day included presentations from Stein scholars: Design Standards for Sunnyside Gardens, Planning of Stein communities, Comparative study of a Garden City community in South America, and Henry Wright's work.Stein communities reported on a preservation framework (completed fellowship); preservation conditions at Radburn; early filming at Phipps Gardens; and Chatham Village's proposal for a historic archive of documents and photographs. Discussion on Stein Institute's future community fellowships.
June 2011 at Greenbelt, Maryland. This two-day conference was organized by Michael Tomlanfrom Cornell University and Connie Ramirez from the University of Maryland, assisted by Tom Hardej. Greenbelt residents also participated.
The first day included presentations from Stein scholars and guests on these topics: Greenbelt's history, Clarence Stein's partnerships, Cautley's influence on Radburn, the film "The City", Sunnyside and a Garden city in Rome, history of Greenbelt, update on Hillside Homes, Henry Wright's home, disaster planning, and substanability in planned communities. NPS's Linda McClelland spoke on "NR/NHL Historic Context for Residential Suburbs".
The second day was a tour of Old Greenbelt and the modern Garden cities of Buckingham and New Mark Commons.
April 2012 at Greenbelt, Maryland. Celebration of Greenbelt's 75th Anniversary.This two-day conference was held in conjunction with a special program presented by a large number of historians from Greenbelt. Other participants were representatives from Sunnyside Gardens, Baldwin Hills Village, Radburn, and Chatham Village. The Stein conference was organized by Michael Tomlan from Cornell University and Connie Ramirez of the University of Maryland.
Updated October 2014